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A software driver is a part of the software that provides an interface. It controls or manages a specific lower-level interface. It provides a means for the software to communicate with specific hardware or low-level service. If the driver is meant for controlling hardware, then it’s referred to as a device driver.

The device driver makes it possible for the operating system of a computer or other programs to access the hardware’s functions without needing to know the precise details of the hardware been used. Drivers serve as translators between the device and the operating system using the device.

Why Do You Need a Driver?

The biggest advantage of using drivers is that it enables programmers to write high-level code no matter what device the user will be working with. For example, a high-level code for working with a serial port might be to “receive data” or “send data.” A windows operating system can read and write to any flash drive because the driver can translate the code into a language that the flash drive can understand.

There are hundreds of peripherals that are able to connect to a computer. All of them use drivers that enable seamless interaction. Some of the applications of device drivers for interfacing include printers, sound cards, network cables, video adapters, external storage devices such as hard drives and floppy disks, image scanners, digital cameras, etc.

The installation package of Microsoft Windows 10 comes with all the basic drivers that are needed to use the computer. However, a driver might malfunction and you may no longer be able to perform some operations, like using your printer. Sometimes, a simple “disabling” and “enabling” the driver may fix the problem, so all computer users must at least know how to access the drivers on their computer. For the purpose of this article, we will focus on Windows 10.

How to Locate Windows 10 Computer Drivers

The methods for accessing the drivers are similar for all the versions of Windows, with just a few variations. To access your drivers on Windows 10, follow the steps below.

Step One

The first step is to get to your Windows settings. You can get to settings by clicking on the windows icon on the far left of the taskbar. If it is not located there, you can also access settings by tapping the Windows key. This will bring up the windows menu. Then, click on the search icon (the magnifying glass). In the search bar, type “settings.” Windows will bring up settings in the search result. Click on it to open to the setting’s home page.

Step Two

At the settings home page, at the top of the page, there is a search bar. Click in the search bar and type “Control Panel.” Windows will automatically search and display the control panel in a search result. Click on it to open the control panel. It will open to the control panel home page.

Step Three

At the control panel home page, click on “Hardware and Sound.” It’s in the middle left of the page. Hardware and Sound will open to the various devices connected to the computer.

Step Four

The next step is to go to “Device Manager.” Device Manager is located on the upper left side of the page. Click on it to open. If you are not logged in as an administrator, you will not be able to make changes under Device Manager. You can only view them.

Step Five

Device Manager will open to display the list of drivers installed on the computer. The drivers are under different categories. To open a category, click on the arrow beside the category.

If you are logged in as an administrator, you can disable a driver by clicking on it and clicking on disable at the top of the window. You can also enable it by clicking on the driver and selecting enable on the top of the window. If you do not have administrator access, and you suspect that any of your drivers are malfunctioning, it is best to contact IT support for help. They can properly troubleshoot your computer for you.

Wrapping Up

If you have followed the above steps, you should have accessed your drivers by now. Note, however, that drivers are not a place to mess around. If you mistakenly delete a driver, it means that your computer cannot perform the function that the driver was assigned to. For example, if you delete the speakers’ drivers, the speakers on your computer will no longer function. So be careful when you access the drivers and make sure that you what you are doing.

The CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex is a plug-in that is installed in Kubernetes to provide persistent storage, using PowerFlex. In addition to our Kubernetes environment, we also need a CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex to complete the automation process. CSI plug-ins are a Kubernetes-defined standard that Dell Technologies and others use to expose block and file storage to container orchestration systems. CSI plug-ins unify storage management across many container orchestration systems, including Mesos, Docker Swarm, and Kubernetes.

Helm charts initiate the installation of the CSI driver. The Helm chart uses a shell script to install the CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex. This script installs the CSI driver container image and the required Kubernetes sidecar containers.

To configure the CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex:

  • Install Kubernetes (see the previous section for Installing Kubernetes).
  • Verify that zero padding is enabled on the PowerFlex storage pools that will be used. Use PowerFlex GUI or the PowerFlex CLI to check this setting.

Then complete the following tasks (defined in detail in the following sections) for configuring the CSI Driver:

  • Enable the Kubernetes feature gates
  • Configure the Docker service
  • Install the Helm package manager
  • Install the PowerFlex Storage Data Client (SDC)
  • Install the CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex

Enable the Kubernetes feature gates

Enable the required Kubernetes feature gates before installing the CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex. In this case, we enable the VolumeSnapshotDataSource feature gate as shown in the steps below:

  1. On each Kubernetes master and worker node, to set feature gate settings for the kubelets, edit the /var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml file by adding the following line at the end:

VolumeSnapshotDataSource: true

  1. On the master node, set the feature gate settings of the kube-apiserver.yaml file:

vi /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml

Append the following line to the kube-apiserver.yaml file

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- --feature-gates=VolumeSnapshotDataSource=true

  1. On the master node, set the feature gate settings of the kube-controller-manager.yaml file as follows:

vi /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-controller-manager.yaml

Append following line to the kube-controller-manager.yaml file:

- --feature-gates=VolumeSnapshotDataSource=true

  1. On the master node, set the feature gate settings of the kube-scheduler.yaml file as follows:

vi /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-scheduler.yaml

Append the following line to the kube-scheduler.yaml file:

- --feature-gates=VolumeSnapshotDataSource=true

  1. On each node, edit the variable KUBELET_KUBECONFIG_ARGS of /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf file as follows:

Environment='KUBELET_KUBECONFIG_ARGS=--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf --feature-gates=VolumeSnapshotDataSource=true'

  1. Use the following commands to restart the kubelet on all nodes:

systemctl daemon-reload

systemctl restart kubelet

Configure the Docker service

Configure the mount propagation in Docker on all Kubernetes nodes before installing the CSI driver. Mount propagation volumes mounted by a Container to be shared with other Containers in the same Pod, or even to other Pods on the same node.

  1. Edit the service section of /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/docker.service file as follows:

Docker.service

[Service]

MountFlags=shared

  1. Restart the Docker service.

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systemctl daemon-reload

systemctl restart docker

Install the Helm package manager

Helm is a package manager. A companion server component called Tiller runs on your Kubernetes cluster, listens for commands from Helm, and handles the configuration and deployment of software releases on the cluster. Find details on Helm and Tiller in Getting Started with Helm/Tiller in Kubernetes. Once you have successfully installed the Helm Client and Tiller, you can use Helm to manage the charts described in Step 4: Configure the CSI driver for Dell EMC .

The curl tool fetches a given URL from the command line in order to save a web file to the local client, or pipe it to another program. Use curl as shown below to install the Helm and Tiller package managers on the master node:

  1. Type this command:

curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/helm/helm/master/scripts/get > get_helm.sh

  1. Change permissions on the script.

chmod 700 get_helm.sh

  1. Run the script.

./get_helm.sh

  1. Initialize Helm.

helm init

  1. Test the Helm installation.

helm version

  1. Set up a service account for Tiller.
    1. Create a rbac-config.yaml file and add the following content to the file:

apiVersion: v1

kind: ServiceAccount

metadata:

name: tiller

namespace: kube-system

---

kind: ClusterRoleBinding

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1

metadata:

name: tiller-clusterrolebinding

subjects:

- kind: ServiceAccount

name: tiller

namespace: kube-system

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roleRef:

kind: ClusterRole

name: cluster-admin

apiGroup: '

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  1. Create the service account.

kubectl create -f rbac-config.yaml

  1. Apply the service account to Tiller.

# helm init --upgrade --service-account tiller

Install the PowerFlex Storage Data Client

To install the PowerFlex Storage Data Client (SDC) on all Kubernetes nodes, follow these steps:

  1. Download the PowerFlex SDS from Dell EMC Online support. The filename is EMC-ScaleIO-sdc-3.0-1000.208.el7.x86_64.
  1. Export the MDM_IP in a comma-separated list. This list contains the IP addresses of the MDMs.

export MDM_IP=192.168.152.25,192.168.160.25

  1. On each Kubernetes node, use the following command to install the SDC.

#rpm -iv ./EMC-ScaleIO-sdc-3.0-1000.208.el7.x86_64.rpm

Install the CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex

The CSI Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex facilitates Use Case 2 by providing the following features:

  • Persistent volume (PV) capabilities - create, list, delete, and create-from-snapshot
  • Dynamic and static PV provisioning
  • Snapshot capabilities - create, delete, and list
  • Supports the following access modes:
  • single-node-writer
  • single-node-reader-only
  • multi-node-reader-only
  • multi-node-single-writer
  • Supports HELM charts installer

To install CSI the Driver for Dell EMC PowerFlex, follow these steps:

  1. Download the installation source files from github.com/dell/csi-vxflexos.

# git clone https://github.com/dell/csi-vxflexos

  1. Namespaces provide a way to divide cluster resources among multiple users.This step creates the vxflexos namespace within the Kubernetes cluster:

#kubectl create namespace vxflexos

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  1. Create a Kubernetes secret with PowerFlex username and password. Use the secret.yaml file to create the secret with the following values to match the default installation parameters:

Name: vxflexos-creds

Namespace: vxflexos

apiVersion: v1

kind: Secret

metadata:

name: vxflexos-creds

namespace: vxflexos

type: Opaque

data:

# set username to the base64 encoded username

username: YWRtaW4=

# set password to the base64 encoded password

password: QFZhbnRhZ2U0

  1. Collect information from the PowerFlex Storage Data Client (SDC) by running the get_vxflexos_info.sh script located in the top-level helm directory. This script displays the PowerFlex system ID and MDM IP addresses.
  2. To customize settings for installation, copy the csi-vxflexos/values.yaml into a file in the same directory as the install.vxflexos named myvalues.yaml.
  3. Edit the myvalues.yaml file to set the following parameters for your installation.
    1. Set the systemName string variable to the PowerFlex system name or system ID. This value was obtained by running the get_vxflexos_info.sh script in Step 4 of this procedure.

systemName: 31846a6a738a010f

  1. Set the restGatewaystring variable to the URL of your system’s REST API Gateway.

restGateway: https://10.230.87.31

  1. Set the storagePool string variable to a default (already existing) storage pool name.

storagePool: R640_SP2

  1. Set the mdmIP string variable to a comma-separated list of MDM IP addresses.

mdmIP: 192.168.152.25,192.168.160.25

  1. Set the volumeNamePrefix string variable so that volumes that are created by the driver have a default prefix. If one PowerFlex system is servicing several different Kubernetes installations or users, these prefixes help you distinguish them.

volumeNamePrefix: k8s

  1. Run the sh install.vxflexos command to proceed with the installation. When the script finishes running, it displays the status of the pods (by calling kubectl get pods -n vxflexos).